Specialists of the Institute of Vertebrology and Rehabilitation are sure: in order to restore health to the spine, one should not only undergo treatment in the clinic, but also consolidate the result after. Such "homework" should be aimed at strengthening the muscular corset of the back, restoring normal circulatory processes, muscle tone and metabolism in tissues. More about this tells the chief doctor of the clinic Igor Sergeyevich Karyshev.
Igor Sergeyevich, why, in your opinion, many patients after the treatment return pain symptoms?
To begin with, you need to understand how the support-motor function of the back works. Stability of the spine, as well as the correct movement of the intervertebral joints is provided by the muscular corset. The muscular corset is a combination of various muscles of the back, which not only "supports" the intervertebral structures and joints, but also ensures normal blood circulation and, accordingly, nutrition of their tissues. The muscular corset performs its function provided that it is correctly formed and maintained in good physical shape.
If the back muscles do not get regular training, they lose elasticity and tone. This entails a deterioration in the supply of vertebral structures and destabilization of segments of the spine. The spine becomes stiff and loses its elasticity and stress resistance. In the end, even simple loads can lead to the emergence of acute back problems: protrusions, hernias, stenosis of the spinal canal, compression of radicular structures and other diseases.
After full treatment (medications, massages, physiotherapy procedures), a person, naturally, will feel much better. However, the effect will be short. All due to the fact that using the above treatment, they did not influence the cause of the current disease or condition, but its symptoms.
In order for the effect of treatment to be fixed for a long time, a person should take care of the physical condition of the muscles of the back. This will strengthen the muscle corset, and therefore make the spine less vulnerable. Muscles of the back should not only be elastic and flexible, but also necessarily strong. Only in this case they will be able to support the spinal column and resist the development of diseases of the spine.
What exactly should the patient do to get a consistently healthy back after treatment?
If you do not want to return to treatment again and again, you need to strengthen your muscular back corset. However, to use safe methods for this. "Pulling rod" in the gym shortly after treatment often leads to exacerbation and new injuries.
People who have had sharp back problems, it is better to start with simple exercises, but perform them regularly. The most effective back exercises in everyday life are squats with a straight back without weight on the amount, exercise "boat" (hyperextension on the floor).
Swimming can also return tonus to a muscle corset. In addition, the buoyancy force of water makes the human body almost weightless, so that the load on all joints of the body is significantly reduced. I recommend to many patients active swimming (breast, crawl) and exercises in water, since the body during swimming is practically devoid of a part of the axial load. However, it is worthwhile to carefully approach the choice of swimming techniques and consult on this issue with your doctor. The correct choice of swimming technique depends on the specific problems of the patient. For example, to swim with a crawl without carrying out hands or breaststroke is recommended for those who have not had physical exertion or people of advanced age for a long time. At stoop it is better to swim on the abdomen, which promotes extension of the spine and correction of posture. If you have serious problems with the spine, it is better to swim and lie on your back.
At the Institute of Vertebrology and Rehabilitation, in order to consolidate the result of the treatment, we use the David method, which has been used in Europe for more than 20 years and is officially recognized as one of the most effective methods for treating back problems. The basis of the technique are exercises on computerized medical simulators under the supervision of a specialist in rehabilitation. When performing exercises, the body of a person is fixed in order to isolate precisely those muscles that should receive the load. The training program itself is formed after computer testing taking into account the features of the human body, the strength of its muscles and the flexibility of the joints. In our opinion, this technique is absolutely safe and it can be recommended to people with back problems.
Igor Sergeyevich, from a medical point of view, how does the treatment work, regardless of the chosen technique?
It all begins with the fact that the body again learns to perform the movements that it performed before the pains appeared. The fact that the human nervous system blocks the amplitude of certain movements, which previously led to pain. Proper motion rehabilitation allows these blocks to be removed.
Then, blood circulation comes into play. Strengthening blood circulation improves metabolism in tissues. In particular, the spine is so arranged that blood vessels do not fit the intervertebral discs. Therefore, intervertebral disc tissues are fed only when moving. Correctly selected set of exercises allows, by increasing blood circulation and metabolism, to restore the elasticity and nutrition of intervertebral discs, and, consequently, the strength of bone tissue, stability in segments, the amortization function of the spinal column.
Finally, the return to muscle corset tone allows to maintain the spine in the correct position during the day, including when performing physical exertion. Here it is important to make a reservation that it is the deep back muscles that support the spine. Therefore, it is first of all necessary to choose exercises aimed at the elaboration of these muscles.
What else can I advise people with chronic back problems?
In addition to regular classes, it is good practice to undergo a preventive course of medical massage and physiotherapy once every six months. As a result, blocks and muscle strains are removed, and blood circulation improves, which positively affects the health of the back. Massage is also recommended to combine with exercises to strengthen the muscles of the back and perform it after classes.
Igor Sergeyevich, so that you advise those patients who have been without traffic for a long time as a result of surgery or acute pain?
Prolonged immobilization of limbs or the body as a whole leads to quite unpleasant changes in the musculoskeletal system. These are osteoporotic changes (increased brittleness of bones), loss of tonus and elasticity of muscle ligaments, and loss of muscle mass, up to atrophy. As a result, having coped with one problem through surgery, a patient becomes at risk of developing new acute diseases of the back and joints.
Therefore, after surgical treatment, as well as various injuries, it is always recommended to apply early rehabilitation, which means at least the inclusion of even passive movements (when the doctor or rehabilitologist is moving for the patient) already for 3-5 days. Even in such difficult states, traffic is necessary!